How to Shoot Street Photography With a Flash

"Lace" - Santa Monica

"Lace" - Santa Monica. Shot with my Ricoh GRIII and flash.

When it comes to street photography, I am always open to new ideas and styles. One technique I have been particularly interested in is shooting street photography with a flash. I have been very inspired by the work of Bruce Gilden and Charlie Kirk. Although this style is quite controversial, I think that shooting with a flash does add an extra dimension to an image, and isn’t quite as unethical as most people claim it to be. After all, it was Bruce Gilden who said, “…the people I shoot in the streets are my friends” and Charlie Kirk who says he shoots “…openly and honestly.” Therefore the last three or so weeks I have been shooting street photography with a flash, and with great success. I will discuss my technique of shooting street photography in the streets with a flash, with special emphasis on mindset as well as technical settings. Read more if you are curious.


The first time I saw the video of Bruce Gilden shooting his subjects in New York City with a flash (watch video above) I remember thinking, “Wow, that guy has massive balls. I wonder if he ever gets punched in the face for doing that?” I thought that I would never have the guts to do something like that. Once I saw his images, I was even more impressed. When shooting street photography I hate shooting in the shade or when there are heavy shadows. It obscures my subjects and I lose that extra dimension of them. However by shooting with flash, Gilden was able to illuminate his subjects and show a bit more of their soul.

Then came the issue of ethics. I wondered if shooting strangers on the street with a flash on their street was ethical, and wrote an entire blog post about if there are any ethics in street photography. Long story short, I concluded that ethics is a personal responsibility and as long as you have the right mentality, street photography is ethical. Bruce Gilden and Charlie Kirk aren’t out on the streets to terrorize or scare people. Rather, they are interested in understanding their subjects and getting close to them (mentally and physically). Charlie Kirk said, “The more I shoot the more I learn about myself and human nature.”

The Gear

Leica MP

Leica MP

Nikon SB-900 AF Speedlight i-TTL Shoe Mount Flash

Nikon SB-900 AF Speedlight i-TTL Shoe Mount Flash

Bruce Gilden and Charlie Kirk shoot street photography in a particular way. They both shoot with Leica’s, a wide-angle lens, as well as a cabled flash. To be specific, Bruce Gilden shoots with a Leica M6, a Leica 21mm f/1.4 Summilux-M, and a cabled flash. Charlie Kirk shoots with a Leica MP, a Leica 28mm f/2.8 Elmarit-M, as well as an SB-900 off-camera and the SF24D on-camera.

I don’t have any off-camera flash available, so I tried using my on-camera flash with my Ricoh GRIII.

Ricoh GRIII Flash

Ricoh GRIII Flash

On the Streets

Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

A couple of fellows I shot in the subway in Zurich, Switzerland.

When it comes to street photography, there is only so much reading and research you can do on it until you actually hit the streets and try it out for yourself. The first day I went out to shoot, I took my Ricoh GRIII and decided to use the built-in flash unit in the camera. I wasn’t quite sure what to expect, and was unsure whether I would get cursed out or punched in the face every time I took someone’s photo with a flash. To be quite frank, I was very nervous about shooting with a flash as I have never done it before.

The first day out, I set my camera to an ISO of around 800 and set the aperture to f/8 and let the camera do the rest of the guessing. I remember trying to shoot my first subject and having them totally out of the frame, as there was a slight delay with the flash. I noticed the flash was about half a second delayed, so I took that into account and started shooting half a second earlier before people entered my frame. I held my camera vertically in my right hand and as people were walking by, I shot the flash straight at them. To my surprise, not much people seemed to notice or care. Not only that, but the flash was pretty damn bright for such a little unit.

I was curious and continued shooting on the streets. I continued to shoot the entire day, and found my most interesting images taken in the shade or where it was dark. It helped illuminate my subjects and really give them a “3d” look. Contrary to what I thought what would happen (people would be generally pissed off and beat me up) most people were totally oblivious. I think I heard one person say, “Oh my gosh!” but that was about it. Nobody stopped me and asked me what I was doing. At the end of the day, I got a handful of pretty decent shots and started wondering why people didn’t notice me shooting street photography with a flash.

Analysis of Shooting Street Photography With a Flash

I am not quite sure why most people did not react negatively when I shot them with a flash, but I do have my hypotheses:

1. People are lost in thought

Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

Zurich, Switzerland.

When Bruce Gilden is out shooting in the streets, he explains that most people don’t seem to notice because they are “…lost in thought.” I find this happening to myself very often when I am walking on the streets. I am thinking about my day, my finances, the work I have to do, the people I have to see, or the emails I have to catch up on. Therefore when walking on the streets, I am not “fully present.” Therefore if someone walked by me and took my photograph with a flash, I would probably be a bit confused where the bright light was coming from, but simply shrugged it off and continued walking.

2. People assume you are taking a photo of something else

Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

Zurich, Switzerland

Shooting photos of strangers on the street with a flash is incredibly uncommon and the average person will probably think it never happens. Therefore if you were a person who was walking in public and thought you saw someone shoot you with a flash you might think to yourself, “Who was that weird guy who just took a photo of myself with a flash? Did he take a photo of me? No– that’s crazy why would he do that? Maybe he was taking a photo of something else? Oh well..”

3. People assume you are a tourist

Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

Zurich, Switzerland.

I think I have the benefit of being Asian and a street photographer, as most people assume I am a tourist. In-fact when I am shooting on the 3rd Street Promenade in Santa Monica (near my workplace) there is always a guy who solicits money who says, “Hi stranger! Are you from Tokyo or China visiting?”

When you think of tourists, they LOVE to take photographs with flash. After all, not too many people shoot photography during the day with flash. I am not sure whether it is because tourists don’t know how to operate their cameras, or they think that it makes their photos look better.

So How Can I Shoot Street Photography With a Flash?

Having never shot street photography with an off-camera flash, I am definitely not the expert when it comes to street photography with a flash. You are better off shooting Charlie Kirk a message on Twitter. However I can definitely offer some advice if you are interested in trying out this technique.

1. It’s all mental

Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

Zurich, Switzerland.

I like to say that street photography is 80% balls and 20% skill. Why do I say this? It is not to downplay the importance of skill, composition, and photographic technique. Even if you are the bravest street photographer in the world and have no idea for framing or composition, you will take horrible street photographs. Rather, I believe that most photographers out there are quite adept at framing and shooting great images. However the even bigger issue is getting over the fear of shooting street photography that we deal with. So to reiterate, it is extremely important to be a skilled street photographer, but even a more important issue to be able to get close and intimate with your subjects.

Therefore if you are going to shoot street photography with a flash, the biggest barrier you have is the mental barrier. You might think its weird, obtrusive, or worried about how people will react. Through my experiment I found out that most people didn’t seem to care or mind too much. I am certain that you will have a similar experience. Once you find out and discover for yourself that people don’t act so negatively, shooting on the streets with a flash will be far easier. But of course easier said than done. Just go out and do it.

2. Shoot with a wide-angle prime

Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

Zurich, Switzerland.

When you are shooting street photography with a flash, it is important to get extremely close to your subjects. There are two reasons behind this: 1) You need to get close in order for the flash to be strong enough to illuminate them and 2) You take far more interesting images. Try using a focal length of around 24mm-28mm if you are on a full frame (17mm if you are using a crop camera). If you have a point and shoot, always shoot at the widest focal length.

3. Don’t worry about the settings too much

 Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

Zurich, Switzerland.

The settings on a flash don’t matter so much when you are shooting on the streets. I simply suggest you to keep your camera in “P” mode and let the camera do all the guessing in terms of the technical flash settings. If your images are too dark, simply increase your ISO. If you find your images too blurry, then you can dig into your camera menu and adjust the flash speed or your shutter speed. In my case, I found out that the auto-flash functionality of my Ricoh GRIII just worked fine.

4. Get really close

Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

Zurich, Switzerland.

My Ricoh GRIII has a focal length of 28mm, and it is ridiculous how close you have to get to make an interesting photograph. When I am passing by strangers, I make sure to also get my camera in front of them as close as I can. There hasn’t been a time when I thought I was “too close.” As Robert Capa said, “If Your Pictures Aren’t Good Enough, You’re Not Close Enough.”


Eric Kim Flash Street Photography

Zurich, Switzerland.

Shooting street photography with a flash isn’t definitely for everybody. Some people may have a problem with the ethics behind it, while others may not have enough balls to do it. However, I highly suggest every street photographer out there to try it at least once. One thing I learned as a sociology major in school is that we pay too much attention to social “rules” and norms in our everyday life and are scared to break them. However once we realize that these social norms and preconceptions aren’t truly “real” (such as the idea that shooting street photography with a flash will get you punched in the face) your eyes will truly be opened up. It is undeniable to say that flash does add an extra dimension to your images, and are quite fascinating to look at.

So do you plan to try shooting street photography with a flash, or are still totally opposed to it? Still have questions about the technique behind it? Leave your comments below!

Don’t Miss Out on Free Updates!

If you want to stay in the loop with my travels, upcoming workshops, free e-books and presets, join my street photography newsletter below:

  • K. Praslowicz

    Most of my street photos use flash, even in the daylight and bright sun. I love the look when all the shadows are shadows are opened up, and the extra color saturation that seems to happen when using it during the daylight. The look can be very subtle, but I do find it to have an impact.

    Martin Parr’s earlier work is great examples. Last Resort and Small World come to mind.

    • Eric Kim

      Thanks for the input K– will definitely check out that stuff by Martin Parr

  • Jimmy D

    this is some very interesting results you got, Eric. And by that I mean both images and findings. I was convinced that shooting with flash would cause more reactions than without, but apparently not (for you).

    I´m for one are going to try flash out for shure. The only problem now is if we all start shooting with flash – I pity those urbans!

    • Eric Kim

      Expect a wave of street photographers using flash in the near future ;)

  • Ian McKenzie

    I’ve used flash for street photography, but generally on special occasion evenings -such as Halloween- when people are a bit more relaxed, or drunk, about getting their picture taken. It is quite effective, but I haven’t worked up the nerve to use flash for my regular street shots.

  • Robert

    Well, Bruce Gilden DOES get punched in the face for shooting with a flash.

    Check the girl @ 0:40 in this video: (

    • John

      Great link! Thanks for sharing this!

  • Isoterica

    Your success is multi-fold from what I see. You are experienced with your gear, you used a smaller camera so don’t have that professional look to you and the Asian thing works, people see ‘another Asian tourist with a camera’ and if they do take notice initially they dismiss you and go about their business. You also had your run in with the bums when you were with Jacob P.. so maybe you already paid your dues. :D Sometimes I think it’s like that.

    I want to say too that your photos look pretty natural , some of them portraits which is fine. While I can admire Bruce G’s bravado, I don’t like his startle effect on his subjects. Jumping in front of people, getting them wide eyed and gasping, I think that is wrong but to each his own opinion. I just know if someone did that to me I’d probably whack them out of reflex and it is not a technique I want to indulge in myself. Close is fine.. flash when necessary should be okay, BOO! … just no. I can’t wait to see what else you come up with as you perfect the flash photography.

    • Eric Kim

      Thanks ISO. I definitely am all about being open and honest with my subjects. Although the “boo” factor is not my style, it can still make for interesting images. Thanks for your thoughts! :)

    • Stewart

      Yeah, I think I would weigh in with Iso here…

      He certainly does have the balls (and is within his rights), but I think he’s quite obnoxious. I think the most telling thing in the video is when he’s told “Not here” – he reacts very strongly. I’d hope some confidently within their rights would smile, move on – play it down. It almost seems like he’s getting more out of the confrontation than photos…

      But that’s a comment on his style, not on using flash on the street. I think there’s certainly room for it – though I’ve never been a fan of the harshness of flash.

      • Eric Kim

        Wonderful to hear your feedback Stewart :D

  • Beth Arr

    thx a lot for all nice ideas.
    a fan from São Paulo – Brasil

  • twocutedogs

    Hey Eric. You should check out Mark Cohen’s work. He was doing this before Gilden I believe. Few other points re flash –

    – If you are using a manual focus lens, flash allows you to shoot closed down. So focusing is not an issue. Miss very few shots that way. But you have to get the shot right first time, as you can seldom take a few when using flash.

    – Really recommend off cable, esp. when the subject is against a wall. You can get very interesting shadows that way.

    – Try stroboscopic flash sometimes. Very interesting effects. Ben Roberts has done this to great success. Shots in his Flickr stream (maybe Friends only).

    – Check out Dirty Harry. He is an incredibly talented flash photographer, as are Mark H and Flat 5. They are all in HCSP.

    • Eric Kim

      Hey Charlie, I am glad you left a comment– I was hoping you would :)

      Will definitely check out the work of Mark Cohen, as well as Dirty Harry, Mark H, and Flat 5.

      Keep up the inspirational work as well!

      • K. Praslowicz

        Children of Weegee as well on Flickr. It is a safe house for us Nasty Flash street photographers.

  • Ewanglee

    This is inspiring me to brave myself soon and confront my fears about shooting wi a flash. Thanks for the insight.

  • Marco Fiori

    Yet again Erik you provide a balanced and interesting argument. My style suits without (getting people in the moment completely unaware). However, I’d like to give it ago – chances are you’d get a much more quizzical reaction.

  • Christopher

    Good to see this type of photography getting a lot of exposure. It is quite fun to do and isn’t for the weak-hearted. Makes me feel like I’m in the early century shooting with a speed graphic with a flash bulb.

  • Gohilruturajsingh

    Hey Eric , this article was really helpful to me , although currently i am still trying to learn shooting with my canon 60D DSLR , else i still have many things to learn , but i will start shooting with flash later, once i buy the wireless flash for my cam …….

  • Pingback: Using Flash in Street Photography « Eva Alvarez Photography()

  • Pingback: Blitzkrieg | André Duhme / Snapshots, yo.()

  • Pingback: How to Shoot Flash Street Photography that Conveys Motion - Photograph IO()